Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrived in East Africa in 1498 and aggressively took control of the coastal regions and trade routes.
The Pare mountain range is in the northeast, and the Kipengere mountain range is in the southwest. Kilimanjaro (5,895 meters/19,340 feet) is the highest mountain in Africa.On the borders are three large lakes: Victoria, Tanganyika, and Lake Malawi.Two-thirds of Zanzibar Island consists of low-lying coral country covered by bush and grass plains.The western side of the island is fertile, and Pemba, apart from a narrow belt of coral country in the east, is fertile and densely populated.There are four main climatic zones: the coastal area and immediate interior, where conditions are tropical; the central plateau, which is hot and dry; the highland areas; and the high, moist lake regions.The earliest known inhabitants in Tanzania's long and colorful past were primarily hunter-gatherers. 800, however, Muslim Arabs established trade routes to and from the country.
In addition, Tanzania has had many of years of influence from other parts of the world. D., vegetables, millet, and sorghum, and fruits and fish were mostly eaten. They introduced citrus fruits, cotton plants, and pilau and biriani (spicy rice and meat dishes), having the greatest effect on the cuisines of coastal regions and the island of Zanzibar.
The inhabitants introduced coconut oil and various tools and textiles to the Arabs in return.
Situated in East Africa just south of the equator, Tanzania is made up of a mainland area and the islands of Zanzibar, Pembe, and Mafia.
Mainland Tanzania lies between the area of the great lakes—Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi (Niassa)—and the Indian Ocean.
It contains a total area of 945,090 square kilometers (364,901 square miles), slightly larger than twice the size of the state of California.
A plateau makes up the greater part of the country.